Breast cancer is a type of cancer which develops in the tissue of the breasts. Signs of a breast cancer may have in inclusion presence of a lump in the given breast, change in shape or structure of the breast, dimpling of the affected part or the affected skin, appearance of the fluid from the nipple, and presence of a red, scaly patch on the skin. If there is a more concerned spread on the follow up of the disease, presence of bone pain is there along with swelling of lymph nodes, breath shortness or yellowing of skin.
Most commonly, a breast cancer roots its development from the cells in the lining of the present milk ducts and the supplying lobules the milk to the ducts. The cancers which originate from the ducts are called as ductal carcinomas. Subsequently, the cancers developing from the lobules are termed as lobular carcinomas. There are given 18 sub types of breast cancers. A few cancers develop from pre-invasive lesions. The diagnosis of breast cancer is assured by doing a biopsy of the concerned lump. Once made, further tests are conducted to reassure the spreading of cancer beyond the borders of breast and the regarded treatments are suggested.
Risk factors of Breast Cancer
There are some certain risk factors involved for the development of breast cancers.
- Female sex – If the person is a female, chances of attaining breast cancer is more than a man.
- Obesity, if caused due to a missing physical exercise of the body results in this
- Excessive drinking problems might be another risk factor
- If during menopause, a female has undergone hormonal replacement therapy, possibilities of breast cancer increase
- Ionizing radiation might make up for another risk factor
- If the woman has menstruation at an early age, the risk of breast cancer increases
- If the woman bears children late, at old age, or bearing no children at all might also result in breast cancer
About a 5 – 10% cases are inherited genes from a person’s parents.
Diagnosis of Breast Cancer
A majority of breast cancers are easily detected via microscopic tests of the given biopsy or the area affected of the given breast. There are present also the rare forms of breast cancer which have a requirement of some specialized lab examinations.
There are present two most common methods namely the physical exam done by the provided healthcare and the second one being mammography.
Management and Treatment of Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is managed via several things. Breast cancer has its usual treatment done via surgery which often follows chemotherapy or therapy by radiation. Here is a need of multi-disciplinary approach and treatment.
Surgery – It has the aspect of physical removal of the lump or the site of tumor along with some of the surrounding area and tissue. Standard procedures include mastectomy, quadrantectomy and lumpectomy.
Therapy – Chemotherapy is needed for breast cancer stages of 2 to 4. The chemotherapy medication is generally administered in combined amounts for 3 to 6 months. Treatment with monoclonal antibodies and hormonal therapy is also done in adequate amounts and at the right time. Radiation therapy is also given after surgery when needed.